Existence is always different from and more than any view – and all views. When we believe a thought or a view, when we hold onto it, we set ourselves up for suffering. And we can respond to this suffering by trying to strengthen the view, or allow it to break open. Of course, this is a continuous process – until there is a resting in spacious and clear awareness – beyond and embracing all and any views.
Among the more historic and cultural examples are how we relate to other species. In the Western – and now global – culture, we have continually included larger segments of humans into who we see as “us”. We are at a point where we subscribe to universal human rights, and at least think it is a good ideal although we don’t always act accordingly. Along with this, we have science that provides an evolutionary perspective on all life, and tells us that we are very similar to other species on a wide range of criteria. We are very closely related to other mammals, as well as closely related to all life on this planet. There is an inherent contradiction here, in how we use the perceived difference between humans and other species as justification for using different guidelines for behavior, and what our scientific worldview tells us. We have guidelines for treating humans with respect and dignity, yet we allow arbitrary imprisonment and killings of other species. It may be that the next step is to include all species, all earthly life, into the circle of “us”. From justifying a different set of guidelines of behavior because we see other species as “them”, we will apply a similar set of guidelines because we see them as “us”.
Of course, this is still within the realm of dualistic thinking. Beyond this is the realm of transdual views, where we directly experience that any and all views are inherently incomplete, confining, and brings suffering.